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Development of elementary school children • Profiling Institute

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A number of factors influence the development of elementary school children. But what exactly are they? What influences the development of children in elementary school?

Current study on the development of elementary school children

That Institute of German Economy has in his IW-Trends 2/2019 “Living situation and development of skills of primary school children” The results of a study on the development of primary school children have been published. It was resolved which factors influence the development of elementary school children. Various factors were taken into account for this purpose. Analyzes were conducted to see how it related to math and German competency test scores and how it related to teachers’ ratings of their ability to concentrate and their social skills. database were data and o from fourth graders from the National Education Panel Study (NEPS), more precisely the baseline cohort 2 of the NEPS “kindergarten children”.

development environment

First it was The developmental environment of children in their development over time displayed. On the one hand, it has changed so that it always has more mothers are returning to work soon get on He has it again institutional care is increasingly important, because many children have to be looked after while their parents are working. In addition to crèches and kindergartens, this also includes all-day care in schools, which would change the way schools look at themselves. They would no longer see their task as simply imparting knowledge, but would increasingly offer extracurricular leisure and support activities that would significantly contribute to education.

But also extracurricular activities have changed. Today, children would do more activities in the home, whereas earlier they were outside. This changed not only movement behavior, but also contact with other children. As a result, school sports and club sports are becoming increasingly important for children’s healthy lifestyles.

It was also always changing more children no longer live with both biological parents. This would change family relationships in many ways.

Family constellation and parents’ time for children

In order to find out what influences the development of children in elementary school, the study first examined the factors of the family constellation and the time that parents spend with their children. For this purpose indicators Family type, number of siblings, maximum time spent with the parent on weekdays, and frequency when the mother is too tired for the child.

The result was based on family constellationthat these probably little influence takes If other aspects of the child’s life situation were examined, it can be assumed that it does not matter in which family constellation the child lives. Growing up in a foster family is an exceptionwhich is associated with permanently negative values.

only one very weak connection put it between number of siblings and Results in the spelling test. Estimates for children with another child in the family are slightly negative. It is similar with ability to concentrate. Regarding social skills whether there is a slightly negative correlation with children from families with 3 or more children.

Related to The time a parent spends with a child let there be only one here too small connection with development. This is also the case in relation to aptitude tests Frequency when the mother is too tired for the baby be the case. However, if the mother is often or even very often overtired, there is a negative correlation with spelling test results. In terms of social skills, children of mothers who are never too tired for them do significantly worse than children of mothers who are sometimes too tired, according to teachers. This tendency is also evident in relation to the ability to concentrate. AND excessive controlling behavior on the part of parents is not favorable.

Socioeconomic background

To shed further light on what factors influence children’s development in primary school, IW examined socio-economic background. Here they were indicators The educational level of both parents or the mother, the work constellation of the parents or the employment of the mother and the considered family income weighted by needs.

One result was this educational level of parents AND major impact on performance in math, reading and spelling seems to have. This is not only attributed to innate abilities, but also to the fact that the support of these parents’ learning is better. Parental education level is also positively associated with social skills and ability to concentrate.

and Constellation of mother’s employment or employment only one appears subordinate role play in relation to aptitude tests. With regard to mathematical skills, social skills and the ability to concentrate, however, according to the results of the study, it is true that Children with non-working parents significantly worse better than children with parents who worked full-time.

AND strong positive correlation took place between net household income weighted by needs and ability to concentrate established. As a hypothesis for how this link might be explained, the study suggested that this higher income might also go hand in hand with traits such as persistence and ambition on the part of parents that children could model. . The existence of silent retreats is also cited as an explanation.


Now, in the IW study, leisure activities are being investigated with regard to the development of elementary school children. The indicators tutoring or music education, time spent at school, frequency of sports activities outside physical education classes, time spent watching television or playing computer games, time spent reading on non-school days, and number of books in the household.

The general idea was that Leisure activities have such a big impact it seems to have the development of elementary school children, as previously no factor considered. only spent time at school only one appears little influence gain weight However, there appears to be a negative correlation between full-time school attendance and reading performance and concentration. This is attributed to the lack of retreat areas for concentrated tasks.

and the importance of reading they also become an indicator through the result time spent reading outside of school days Transparent. Children who read for more than an hour on out-of-school days performed better on tests of spelling, reading and math, and their ability to concentrate was rated better. The importance is also confirmed by the fact that children whose household had less than 25 books had worse results in the spelling test.

But also Physical activity outside of school is important. Children who engage in physical activity several times a week, but not daily, fared best. On the contrary, children who exercise less than once a week fared significantly worse, not only in competence tests, but also in the ability to concentrate.

It is also important participation in a music lesson. According to IW, children who completed music education also performed significantly better in tests of competence and ability to concentrate.

Points of physical activity and music education had a fundamental influence, especially in the area of ​​reading, spelling and mathematics.

Local connection is different media use. According to IW, children who 4 hours or more per day they engage in computer games or television, in the areas of social skills and ability to concentrate significantly worse as children do only up to 2 hours a day would do Children, no media at all used but cut in these areas also worse away. So this is not the best option either.


IW also draws a conclusion from its investigation of which factors influence the development of elementary school children. of the biggest connection so he was among recreation and development of elementary school children. In the areas of reading, maths and spelling se music and sports activities Important. In terms of social skills and ability to concentrate, it is media use particularly essential. Less important are the points of the family constellation, the time that parents have for their children and the socio-economic background, which, on the other hand, is important for the point of free time. In IW-Trends, requirements and more far-reaching conclusions are drawn from these results. So be it important to offer things like sports activities and music lessons in day schools and other care facilitiespromote skills. But he should too more retreats be made for concentrated work and enough caregivers available to provide support. for implementation more financial and human resources needs that should be borne by municipalities, states and the federal government. Another conclusion reached by IW is that Parents should be supported and informed about how to shape their child’s environment to support their development. The need can be seen here, especially with regard to the use of media. In order to reach as many parents as possible, it is suggested that trained counselors be invited to parent evenings.

Here you will find IW Trends 2/2019:

The situation in the life and development of competences of elementary school children

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